What is Arthroplasty?
All of the joints in the body give the person different mobility. Depending on various diseases and traumas, the joints may become unable to perform this function from time to time. Arthroplasty can be defined as the restructuring of the joint in order to reduce the pain and pain sensation in the joint, to increase the mobility and stabilize it. Arthroplasty is generally used in large-surface joints that carry heavy body weight, such as knee and hip joints. However, with the development of medicine and technology, it can also be applied to joints such as wrists, ankles, elbows and shoulders. With arthroplasty, joints can be repaired or replaced with prostheses. Thus, the deformed joint, which causes pain and limitation of movement of the person, regains its former mobility and increases the quality of life of the person.
What Are the Types of Arthroplasty?
With arthroplasty, the joints that cause limitation of movement can be reshaped or replaced with prosthesis.
Arthroplasty can be applied in 4 different ways:
- Resection Arthroplasty: The articular surface of the joint causing the complaint is removed. Thus, the joint has the greatest possible range of motion, that is, limp. For example, when resection arthroplasty is applied to a person who has walking difficulties, the person can walk again, albeit with a limping.
- Interposition Arthroplasty: In addition to the application of resection arthroplasty, soft tissue is placed between the joints. For example, the bone that causes limitation of movement in the wrist can be removed and replaced with a ball-shaped tendon.
- Partial Endoprosthesis Arthroplasty: A part of the joint is supported by an endoprosthesis, that is, the type of prosthesis that remains in the body. Thus, the joint functions anatomically and mechanically. In hip fracture cases, some of the hip cartilages are removed and a prosthesis is attached instead, and the joint regains its former function.
- Total Endoprosthesis Arthroplasty: It is the process of replacing both sides of the sick or deformed joint. Although this procedure is usually applied to the knee and hip joints, it can also be applied to joints such as the hand and ankle, elbow, shoulder and lumbar spine (lumbar disc).
What is Total Hip Replacement?
Total hip replacement is the replacement of the highly deformed hip joint with an artificial joint due to many different reasons. By eliminating pain and limitation of movement, it greatly improves the patient's quality of life. When to apply the hip prosthesis may vary depending on the age, gender and complaints of the patient. Today, hip replacements can be used for 15 to 20 years.
What is Total Shoulder Prosthesis?
Calcification and wear of the cartilage in the shoulder joint can cause limitation of movement and severe pain in the person. In such cases, total shoulder prosthesis is applied to restore the former function of the joint and to relieve pain. In total shoulder prosthesis operation, the whole or part of the shoulder joint is replaced with a prosthesis, thereby increasing the quality of life of the person.
What is Total Knee Replacement?
Factors such as cartilage wear and calcification can cause limitation of motion and severe pain in the knee joint. In such cases, total knee prosthesis can be applied to regain the former functions of the joint. In a total knee replacement operation, the worn and/or damaged knee joint is replaced with a prosthesis. When to apply the knee prosthesis may differ depending on the patient's age, general health status and complaints.