Pituitary Adenoma

Pituitary Adenoma


Each organ that makes up the hormonal system plays an important role in our body. Therefore, serious clinical complaints may be encountered in various diseases affecting the endocrine system. In this sense, one of the hormonal system diseases that can be seen in society and that can be encountered with different clinical pictures is tumor formations called adenomas that develop in the pituitary gland.


What is Pituitary Adenoma?

Pituitary pituitary adenomas, which are seen in about 1 in 5 people, are among the benign tumors. That is, it remains without symptoms and harm for life. However, since the function of the pituitary gland is very important, it can cause serious health problems as a result of the growth of the tumor and the secretion of hormones that the body does not need.


Pituitary adenoma accounts for 15% of intracranial tumors and is very rarely malignant. Its treatment is surgery, medication and radiosurgery, namely Gamma Knife treatment. It is mostly seen in men and women between the ages of 25-45, but it can also be seen at earlier and later ages.


The pituitary gland, located in the brain and as large as a hazelnut, is responsible for the control of the glands in the body. It controls growth, heart rate, and reproduction. It is like a conductor giving orders to other hormone-secreting glands in the body. These hormones give orders to the organs and ensure that our body works in a certain order.


The pituitary gland contains cells that are programmed to secrete different hormones. Tumor occurs as a result of uncontrolled proliferation of a single cell by undergoing genetic deformation. Depending on which hormone cell is affected, tumor symptoms also vary depending on the excessive secretion of that hormone.


The most common pituitary gland tumors are; They are tumors in the cells of the milk-secreting hormone prolactin. This disease is followed by acromegaly, Cushing's disease, tumors that do not secrete hormones, and tumors that secrete more than one hormone. More rarely, adenoma of cells that secrete thyroid gland stimulating hormone causes symptoms of thyroid gland insufficiency or excess.


How Is Pituitary Adenoma Treated?

The treatment method in pituitary adenoma is primarily determined depending on the clinical findings in the patient and the level of impact on health. In this context, when tumors with microadenoma characteristics do not cause any functional or anatomical problems, treatment decisions may not be made. However, it may be necessary to apply different treatment methods in larger sized and functional tumors. Accordingly, the following methods are used in the treatment of pituitary tumors:

  • Follow-up: In tumors that are small, non-functional and do not cause any clinical symptoms, close follow-up may be recommended. In this case, patients are examined intermittently to see if there is any change in the behavior and size of the tumor.

  • Surgery: Surgical removal of the adenoma may be required, especially in tumors that cause compression symptoms. Two different methods can be applied here. In the first method, called the endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal approach, the surgery involves the removal of the mass by closed technique with the help of endoscopes sent into the nose. The second method is the transcranial approach; it refers to the removal of the mass by open neurosurgery method.

  • Radiotherapy: After surgical treatment or in patient groups where surgery cannot be performed, it can be aimed to remove the mass with radiotherapy using intensified X-rays. External radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery methods can be used.

  • Drug therapy: Various drug treatments can be used to relieve the symptoms that develop due to the increase or decrease in the amount of pituitary hormones in the blood.