Anemia occurs when there is not enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglabin is the molecule responsible for transporting oxygen and is found inside red blood cells. The amount of hemoglobin may be low due to low blood cells or abnormal structure. Symptoms such as weakness and fatigue, which are extreme anemia syndromes, occur due to low hemoglobin levels and insufficient oxygen transport.
What causes anemia?
Red blood cells are the cells that keep the body alive. They contain iron molecule and hemoglobin. The low level of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body, depending on the amount of red blood cells causes anemia and various syndromes. It should also be noted that there are multiple types of extreme anemia and there is no single cause.
Causes of anemia include:
- Inability of the body to produce enough red blood cells ( aplastic anemia)
- Decreased red blood cells due to bleeding
- Destruction of red blood cells in a shorter time than normal
- Iron deficiency
- Vitamin deficiency
- Chronic disease (HIV / AIDS, kidney diseases, crohn's disease)
- Autoimmune diseases
- Chemical exposure
- Abnormality in red blood cells
- Lead poisoning
Symptoms of extreme anemia vary according to the causes of the disease. General symptoms are as follows
- Irregular heartbeat
- Shortness of breath and chest
- Pale face
- Leg cramps
- Desire to eat items such as soil, ice or paper (due to iron deficiency)
- Numbness, dementia, clumsiness in the limbs (due to vitamin B12 deficiency)
- Blue-black streaks on the gums, abdominal pain, constipation (due to lead poisoning)
What is Aplastic Anemia?
Aplastic anemia is the rarest type of anemia and is life-threatening. It has to do with the body's inability to produce enough blood cells. It can occur due to infection, toxic chemicals, drugs, and autoimmune diseases.
Blood transfusion and stem cell transplantation may be required in the treatment of aplastic anemia. In addition to this, avoiding the factors that cause the disease can also ensure the disappearance of the disease.